Poet to Poet: Fres Thao

Ezra Pound felt that “poetry is news that stays news.” When poets are interviewed, it’s often done in a journalistic fashion by other poets. But I wanted to see what would happen if Minnesota poets were interviewed as poet to poet, through the forms we work in the most.

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150 LEEJ HMOOB UAS TSEEM RAUG KAW NYOB NOOM QHAIS

Muaj ib pab Hmoob thojnam kwv yees li 150 leej raug kaw nyob lub nkuaj kaw cov tibneeg nkag txhaum tebchaws nyob Noom Qhais, Thaibteb, tau 9 lub hlis dhau los lawm, uas tsis paub tias yuav kaw mus txog thaum twg. Txawm hais tias UNHRC twb tau txais kev lees paub tias lawv yog tseem tibneeg thojnam lawm los lawv tseem raug kaw txom nyem nyob nkuaj tawm tsis tau li. Tseemfwv Thaib twb cog lus rau cov thuj txawv tebchaws tias yuav tsis xa cov Hmoob no rov qab, tabsis tseemfwv Thaib tseem muab cov Hmoob kaw li tej tsiaj ua rau lawv xav dai tuag lawm xwb. Tseemfwv Thaib thiab tseemfwv Lostsuas tseem pheej hais tias cov Hmoob no tsis yog tseem tibneeg thojnam, lawv yog tibneeg khiav kev nrhiav noj xwb, kom thiaj li xa tau lawv rov qab rau Lostsuas. Tus uas ua nyuaj rau cov Hmoob yog tseemfwv Lostsuas vim lawv ua li no kom Thaib muab cov Hmoob nyob Noom Qhais xa rov qab mas thiaj li yuav tsis muaj hauv kev txais cov Hmoob nyob Dej Dawb nyob. Continue Reading

YAWG HLOB NAIS PHOOS VAJ POV RAUG TXHOM

Raws li xovxwm Twin Cities hauv Internet uas sau hais tias “Hmong leader accused of plotting to overthrow government of Laos” thaum lub 6 hli 4, 2007. Nws hais tias muaj 10 leej tau raug txhom nyob rau California, tebchaws Amelikas, uas ib tug yog Yawg Hlob Nais Phoos Vaj Pov uas yog Hmoob tus thawj. Cov raug txhom zaum no 9 leeg yog Hmoob thiab muaj ib leeg yog ib tug qub tubrog Amelikas, Col. Harrison Ulrich Jack, vim lawv npaj riam phom yuav mus tsim kev kub ntxhov thiab ntxeev tseemfwv kusmuniv Lostsuas. Luag tau liam hais tias lawv npaj nyiaj yuav mus yuav riam phom, tsheb ua rog, muas txwv, cuajluaj, thiab luv tem uas txhaum Amelikas txojcai rau qhov uas npaj nyob hauv Amelikas tebchaws yuav mus tua lwm tebchaws. Continue Reading

Hmoob txqjkev ncaws pob keeb kwm muaj los lawm ntev


Tus Txhais

Hmoob txojkev ncaws pob keeb kwm muaj los lawm ntev. Txij puag thauv Fabkis cov tub txib qhia Vajtswv txoj lus los mus lawm. Niaj hnub nimno, peb Hmoob tseem nyiam ncaws pob kawg li.

Txhua xyoo, thaum txog lub xya hli ntuj, hnub plaub, peb Hmoob muaj kev ncaws pob rau hauv nroog St. Paul, MN. Yog ib lub sijhawm niam txiv kwvtij neejtsa tau sib pom thiab saib Hmoob ncaws pob.

Txojkev ncaws pob no ua rau peb Hmoob muaj phoojywg dav. Vim tau ob peb xyoos no, peb yeej pom luag lwm haiv neeg, xws li, Dawb, Dub, Mev, Nplog mus rau lwm haiv neeg tau nrog peb muaj kev lomzem ntawm lub pob.

Lub siab nyiam ncaws pob rau hauv peb haiv Hmoob ua rau peb cov Hmoob keej zuj zus. Tsis tas li, thaum lwm haiv neeg nrog peb ncaws pob ua rau peb mob siab iam peb lub cev, lub hlwb kom ncaws tau li luag. Tamsim no, peb Hmoob muaj cov hluas ncaws txog qib siab lawm thiab.

Ib qho teebmeem loj, uas nyob rau hauv peb Hmoob txojkev ncaws pob yog: 1. Kev sib chim, 2. Siab luv, thiab 3. Muaj yeeb ncuab thaum nyob rau hauv tshav ncaws pob. Tsis tas li ntawd, tseem ua caub lawm yav tom ntej. Xws lis, thaum yus rov sib pom tim tej (uas tsis yog sijhawm ncaws pob) tseem sib ntaus thiab.

Tsab ncaws pob rau ib pab tau hais tias, “Peb yuav tsum ncaws kom muaj ceem, thiab tsis txhob tshai tuag, peb thiaj ncaws pob tau nrog cov keej. Tsis ntev, peb thiaj li yuav pom menyuam Hmoob raug txais, muas, thiab yuav mus ncaws pob them nyiaj hli.” Kab hais tias, “Tsab yog ib tug ncaws pob phem heev li. Yog peb raug lawv mas sib ntaus txhua zaus. Lawv pom peb tus keej, yog tus twg ces, txhob txwm muab nws ncaws kom lov cheg lov npab xwb.”

Yog menyuam Hmoob tau muaj kev kawm ncaws pob los thaum yau. Thiab yog muaj kws thaum ncaws pob rau hauv tsev kawm ntawv. Thaum keej, mus txog University, tsev kawm ntawv yuav them nws nqi ntawv. Thaum ncaws pob tshaj yeej hauv University, luag yuav them tus tub ncaws pob ntawd, nyiaj hli.

Lub vajvoog ncaws pob yog li no. Thaum cov keej mus nrhau los, lawv yuav tsum rov qab los qhia cov menyuam yaus. Ib tiam thiaj li keej zus, thiab muaj zog zus.

Tiamsis, peb cov Hmoob yuav tsum rov qab tig los mus kho txojkev sib ntaus, siab luv, thiab ua yeeb ncuab. Peb cov Hmoob thiaj li yuav nrhau mus ua ib haiv neeg ncaws pob kom lwm haiv neeg pom hais tias peb nrhau qib no lawm. Tsis tas li ntawd, cov niam thiab cov txiv thiaj li kam peb cov menyuam Hmoob ncaws pob.

Hmong Today (Hmoob xov xwm hnub no) pom tau hais tias peb Hmoob sib cheg ntau yam, xws li, ua nom ua tswv, mus rau, kev noj kev haus. Peb xav hnug Hmoog hais tias, “Peb tsum puas tau txojkev sib cheg no, thiab peb puas nrhau qib no mus kom siab thiab zoo tshaj no?”

PEB HMOOB NCAWS POB TAU MUAJ LOS LAWM NTEV

Abdul sawv ntawm lub tshav pob thaum lub sijhawm lawv ob pab ncaws pob yuav tas. Nws co nws lub taub hau thiab tu siab hais tias nws pab ncaws pob swb lawm. Zaum no yog nws thawj thawj zaug ncaws pob nrog Hmoob. Abdul pab ncaws pob yog haiv neeg Somali. Nws tau hais tias peb paj maj Hmoob tes taw ncaws pob. Hmoob feem coob keej kawg nkaus li.

Nws thws nws yav kav hlaub rau sawvdaws saib. Thiaj li pom nws kav hlaub nroog thiab ntsuab xiab. Abdul hais,”Nej cov Hmoob yeej heev. Peb xav lawm hais tias thib ib thiab lub qhaam ces yog peb li lawm. Tiamsis, zaum no, ces ntshe peb yuav mus tsev tsis tau lossis yeej dabtsis li.”

Abdul tsis yog tib leeg qhuas Hmoob ncaws pob xwb. Lub sijhawm no muaj cov menyuam Hmoob ncaws pob keej.

Youssef Darbaki, yog ib tug qhia cov neeg keej ncaws pob, hais tias, “Hmoob ncaws pob pib zoo tshaj qhov qub lawm. Hmoob tes taw zoo tiamsis qhov teebmeem yog peb Hmoob kawm ncaws pob tsis muaj kws, tsis tas li ntawd, nws ncaws pob tsis muaj tswvyim.”

Darbaki yog ib tug qhia ncaws pob rau hauv University of St. Thomas. Nws muaj peb caug (30) xyoo ua haujlwm thiab kawm txog ncaws pob. Nyob rau xyoo 1982, nws tau ncaws pob rau lub tebchaws Morocco. Lawv ncaws zoo thiab tau mus txog qhov kawg hauv World Cup.

Darbaki hais, “Hmoob ncaws zoo dua Mev, thiab Somali, tiamsis yuav tsum ncaws muaj kws, thiaj li yuav ncaws tau mus deb.”

Sib Tw Yuav Ntsej Yuav Muag
Nyob rau hauv Hmoob lub thawj thawj tshav ncaws pob (1st Annual International Sports Tournament). Ob pab los mus raug ncaws yuav thib ib yog Twin Star (yog ib pab hluas muaj Dub, Mev, Dawb, Esxias, thiab Hmoob) thiab Black Cat (yog ib pab hluas Hmoob nrov npe heev).

Tshuav tshaj lawm peb caug teev (30 minutes), tus tswj lub tshav pob (referee) taw tes hais tias lub pob tawm lawm, yog Black Cat lub pob. Tom qab ntawd, nws cia li hais tias nws taw tes yuav kev, yuav tsum yog Twin Star lub pob. Thaum muab lub pob rau Twin Star, lawv cia li coj mus tua noj Black Cat.

Cov tuav ob pab tub ncaws pob ntawd tseem tau los mus sib tham kom muaj kev sib haum xeeb. Sawvdaws tau xaus hais tias 1-0 los tsis ua li cas. Tsis ntev muaj ob tug ncaws pob hauv txawm sib xeem mus muab lub pob, sib tsoo, thiab ntog muaj ceem. Black Cat txawm cia li muab pab Twin Star caum puv thoob plaws lub tshav ncaws pob. Cov neeg tuaj xyuas ob pab tub ncaws pob no los txawm cia li kwv qws, tog, thiab kaus los mus hauv lub tshav ncaws pob.

Kub ntxhov qhov txhia qhov chaw. Muaj tshaj lawm kaum ob tug tub ceev xwm (12 policemen) thiaj tau los mus tswj lub tshav ncaws pob. Lawv tseem tau siv aub thiab cuab yeej los mus, thiaj li tswj tau menyuam Hmoob, tsis pub sib ntaus. Cov tub ceev xwm ntawd txawm cia li tsis pub sawvdaws ncaws pob lawm.

Tus cav lub tshav ncaws pob yog Txhiaj Foom Hawj. Nws yog ib tug tub ua lag luam nrov npe hauv Minnesota. Thiaj tau tshaj tawm hais tias tsis pub Twin Star thiab Black Cat tau thib ib thiab thib ob li. Black Cat tsis txaus siab, thiaj li muab thib ob rau lawv. Tiamsis, lawv tau nyiaj xwb tsis pub lawv txais lub qhaam nyiaj qhaam kub.

Muaj neeg hnug hais tias, “Ua li cas nej thiaj li muab Twin Star caum puv lub tshav pob?” Cawv Yaj uas ncaws rau Black Cat hais tias, “Lub tshav ncaws pob no yeej siab tsis ncaj thaum pib lawm. Vim cov tub tshuab thiab tswj rau lub tshav pob, ib txwm ncaws pob rau Twin Star. Yog lawv ib txwm ncaws pob rau Twin Star, lawv yeej yuav tsum tshuab kom Twin Star yeej xwb. Peb npau vim yog li no, ces… yus keej npaum li cas los yuav tsum raug swb xwb. Yog koj muab ntsia los mus, lub tshav pob yeej tsis ncaj. Nej sawvdaws xyuas lub tshav pob ncaws rau lub xya hli ntuj hnub plaub tsaib no…Lawv txhob txwm muab tej pab ncaws pob uas lawv nyiam xaiv ncaws pob rau cov tsis keej. Lawv muab cov ncaws pob keej uas lawv tsis nyiam ncaws nrog cov keej. Thaum zoo li no, cov keej tawm tas, tshuav lawv cov tseem nyob cia li mus yeej yooj yim. Kuv yeej paub kuv tus Cawv Yaj no muaj lub npe tsis zoo xws li, siab luv thiab ntaus neeg. Yog vim kuv xav kom sawvdaws ua ncaj, thiab kom tej pab ncaws pob twg yeej los yog vim, lawv tshaj yeej tiag.”

Kev Txhim Kho Lawm Yav Tom Ntej
Tsab Vaj thiaj li pom tau hais tias yog peb xav kom Hmoob ncaws pob zoo. Cov los mus cav lub tshav ncaws pob yuav tsum coj ncaj. Li ntawd, nws thiaj li tau pib Hmoob thawj lub tshav ncaws pob hu ua Asian Soccer League.

Tsab hais tias, “Xyoo tas xyoo tuaj, menyuam Hmoob ncaws pob nrog lawv tus kheej thiab lawv pab xwb. Thaum muaj kev sib tw, mam li sib ntsib xwb. Peb yeej tsis muaj ntaub ntawv sau cia hais tias pab twg keej lossis pab twg tsis rau siab. Tom ntej no yog peb muaj ntaub muaj ntawv tuav cov tub ncaws pob no, peb Hmoob txojkev sib tw ncaws pob no thiaj li yuav vam meej zuj zus.

Saib xyuas los mus tagnrho lub tebchaw no, Txhiaj Foom yeej pom hais tias sawvdaws yuav tsum ncaws pob kom muaj ntaub muaj ntawv. Tom qab Black Cat thiab Twin Star sib ntaus tas, Txhiaj Foom thiaj li tau nrog cov Hmoob rau lwm lub lav xws li Wisconsin los mus rau California sib tham kom sawvdaws sib koom siab tuav ntaub ntawv rau cov tub ncaws pob. Cov ntaub ntawv no yog npe, lawv pab hu li cas thiab lawv tus cwj pwm yog li cas.

Txhiaj Foom Hawj hais tias, “Yog ib tug neeg lossis ib pab tau tsim teebmeem rau cov cav lub tshav ncaws pob, ces, sawvdaws thoob plaws lub tebchaws no yuav tsum tsis pub lawv ncaws pob lawm. Tom ntej no, thiaj li yuav tsis muaj teebmeem ntxiv. Txojcai no thiaj li yuav khoo kom sawvdaws ua siab ntev.”

Lao Family tso cai rau Pheej Lis los mus tuav Hmoob lub tshav ncaws pob rau hauv lub xya hli ntuj hnub 4 xyoo 2006. Nws pom tau hais tias yuav tsum cia cov nai ntawm cov tub ncaws pob tuaj rho npe thiaj li muaj kev sib haum xeeb thiab ncaj ncees.

Muaj teebmeem ntau yam, Darbaki muaj cov tub hluas Hmoob cia li tsis nrog lawv ncaws pob nyob rau hauv Twin Star lawm. Darbaki hais tias, “Lub sijhawm no cov niam cov txiv cia li tsis pub lawv tus menyuam nrog peb ncaws pob. Kuv yeej tsis to taub li thiab.”

Txhiaj Foom lub zeem muag nrog rau Darbaki tau pom hais tias yuav tsum tsim kom tau ib lub tshav kawm ncaws pob los mus qhuab qhia menyuam Hmoob thaum txij li plaub (4) xyoos thiab tsib (5) xyoos.

“Hmoob yuav ncaws pob kom zoo yog kev kawm thaum yau, nrog rau niam txiv kwvtij neejtsa sawvdaws txhawb.”

Tus sau cov lus xaus: Tej zaum sawvdaws yeej pom hais tias nws tsuas yog ncaws pob xwb tsis muaj nuj nqi pestsawg. Tiamsis kuv xav hais tias kev ncaws pob no yog peb Hmoob txojkev vam meej tau los lawm peb caug xyoo. Peb yeej muaj peevxwm ncaws tau nrog luag lwm haiv neeg, tiamsis, peb qhov teebmeem yog, rov qab yog, peb tus kheej xwb.

Kuv pom tau hais tias thaum peb ncaws pob zoo. Luag lwm haiv neeg yuav xav hais tias yog peb Hmoob twb ncaws pob zoo, lwm yam los peb Hmoob yuav ua tau zoo li ntawd thiab.

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Hmoob, Hmoob-Amelikas, thiab Amelikas-Hmoob

Niaj hnub nim no peb cov neeg Hmoob feem coob tsis coj li Hmoob poj yawm txwv koob thaum ub lawm. Nyias muaj nyias tus xeebceem thiab coj tus cwjpwm sib txawv heev li lawm. Yog peb ua twb zoo ntsia mas peb yuav pom tias muaj 3 pab Hmoob zoo li nram no: Hmoob, Hmoob-Amelikas, thiab Amelikas-Hmoob. Cia kuv piav ib pab zuj zus rau nej xav. Cov Hmoob nyob teb chaws Amelikas uas tseem coj li Hmoob thaum ub tiag tiag ces nim no yog cov laus hnub nyoog li ntawm 55 xyoos rov saud lawm xwb. Continue Reading

kwvtij tub rog: tus tubrog kho mob ua lub lag zeb nco txog cov qub tubrog–steve schofield yog ib tug qub tub rog nrog hmoob tua


Tus Txhais

Tau los lawm ntev, Asmesliskas tsis nco cov neeg pab nws nyob rau hauv tsov rog Secret War lub sijhawm 1960 mus rau 1970. Tiamsis qhov tsis nco ntawd pauv lawm. Pib hauv Sheboygan, WI lawm. Vim muaj Steve Schofield txhawb nqa heev.

Steve Schofield hais tias, “Cov Hmoob tuaj rau tebchaws Asmesliskas, tiamsis tsis muaj leejtwg tsoom fwv tsev dawb yuav los mus qhia rau Asmesliskas pejxeem hais tias ua li cas Hmoob thiaj li tau tuaj, qhov tsis qhia ntawd yog tsoom fwv tseem npog.” Steve muaj 61 xyoo, nyob rau hauv lub zos Newton, WI. Nws yog ib tug nais tub rog muaj lub xab (major). Nws hais tias, “Lub sijhawm tamsim no yeej tseem tsis tau muaj leejtwg to taub vim li cas Hmoob tuaj Asmesliskas, kuv xav zoj, kuv twb yog tus paub thiab pom los mus, yog kuv tsis hais tawm ces, tshais yuav tsis muaj leejtwg yuav hais.”

Schofield, yog ib tug tubrog kho mob lub sijhawm 1968 nyob rau hauv nyaj laj teb. Tsis tas li nws yog ib tug tubrog kho mob lub sijhawm 1969 mus rau 1975 nyob rau Lostsuas tebchaws. Nws pab kho Hmoob thiab Nplog thaum raug mob sib tua nrog nyaj laj. Cov tub nrog ntawd yog Special Guerrilla Units (SGU).

Tshaj lawm phav phav leej tau tuag vim yog muaj qhov tsov rog no (Secret War).

Lub lag zeb nco txog Nplog, Hmoob, thiab Asmesliskas cov qub tub rog muaj nyob rau hauv Sheboygan’s Deland Park. Muab fij lub xya hli ntuj, hnub kaum tsib, xyoo 2006 – yuav muab sawvdaws cov zaj dab neeg cov los mus qhia pejxeem uas tsis tau hnov, Schofield hais, nws pab nws lub dag zog, qhia thiab ntuas, tsim nyiaj txiag, lub lag zeb thiaj li tiav lawm.

Schofield hais tias, “Lub tseem ntsiab yog qhia kom sawvdaws paub, vim tsawg leej paub xwb.” Cov Hmoob tuag lawm coob leej. Nees nkaum feem pua (20%) txiv neej Hmoob tau tuag lub sijhawm ua rog ntawd.

Cov npe ntawm pua pua leej Hmoob cov qub tubrog uas tau tuag lawd. Thaum tshawb tau-yuav muab coj mus txaug rau hauv daim lag zeb ua raug nqi $140,000. Qhov no yog thawj thawj daim lagzeb nco txog Hmoob tus txiaj ntsim muab txojsia pauv tebchaws.

Tsav Yaj, hauv Hmong Mutual Assistance Association of Sheboygan, hais tias Schofield tseem ceeb heev vim yog tsis muaj nws ces daim lagzeb no yuav tsis tshwm sim. Thaum pib los mus, Sheboygan cov tub khiav haujlwm tsis pom zoo. Tiamsis Schofield thiab sawvdaws tsis tso tseg tam sim no thiaj li tiav lawm.

Tsav hais tias, “Steve yog ua haujlwm sib zog heev, tau los mus qhia tsoom fwv Sheboygan los mus to taub Hmoob pab Asmesliskas ua rog Lostsuas tebchaws. Nws yeej ua haujlwm nrog Hmoob lub sijhawm ntawd, nws thiaj li yog tus ua tau lav tham rau Hmoob.”

Schofield lub dag zog nrov thoob plaws Asmesliskas. Thaum lub rau hli ntuj nws yeej kev qhuas nyob rau hauv Special Forces Association nyob rau hauv Fayetteville, NC.

Schofield hais, “Yog leejtwg mloog ces kuv yuav qhia txog Hmoob. Feem ntau neeg zoo siab thiab hais ua tsaug rau Hmoob. Feem tsawg hais tias ua tsaug kuv tau qhia lawv, vim lawv yeej tseem tsis tau paub li.”

Schofield hais tias nws tus kheej kiag twb tsis paub hais tias xyov yuav ua li cas nyob rau hauv xyoo 1969 hauv U.S. Agency for International Development.

Kuv yeej tsis paub yuav xav li cas li. Asmesliskas txwv tsis pub leejtwg hais tawm li. Tiamsis lub sijhawm ntawd pom lub tshav nyooj hoom hauv Looj Ceeb loj heev, leem av dub nciab (Tiamsis tsis muaj nyob hauv ntawv). Tsuas pom phav phav leej Hmoob hnav khaub ncaws tub rog sia phom nrog ncig. Tsis tas li neeg coob heev.”

Schofield ua tub rog khov mob xyoo 1969 nrog USAID, nrog Special Forces, ya mus ya los rau nyaj laj tebchaws, Lostsuas, Qhab Mim tebchaws. Nws raug tua tsis tuag, thiaj li tau txais lub xab pajyeeb (purple heart), thiab Huabtais Asmesliskas tsab ntawv zoo.

Nyob rau hauv Hmoob zejzog, lub sijhawm tsov rog ntawd. Schofield saib ob lub tsev kho mob nrog Hmoob.

Ya thiab tsaws tshaj lawm 20 zaus tauj ib hnub. Nyob rau xyoo 1973, nws lub nyooj hoom raug nyaj laj tua raug, nws tau pom lub tshav nyooj hoom raug tua, thiab nplaum tua tuaj rau nws qhov chaw ua haujlwm. Nws tau pom hais tias txojkev tsov rog no txaus ntshai kawg li.

Schofield hais tias, “Tsis paub hais li, kuv nco nyob rau xyoo 1972, cov nyooj hoom tshuab mas kwv 100 tus tub rog tauj ib hnub. Txog tav su xwb ces kuv npliag nplaws ntshav.”

Schofield zoo siab nrog Hmoob tua nyaj laj thiab tiv thaiv tebchaws.

Schofield hais tias, “Hmoob ua tsov rog keej heev hauv hav zoo, ib tauj ib, tiamsis thaum muab coj los mus ua tej pab. Hmoob sawb lawj kiag.”

“Xyoo 1969 twb muaj tub hluas Hmoob 12 xyoos mus ua tub rog lawm, vim cov laus tuag tas lawm. Xyoo 1973, kuv tsuas pom 8 xyoo thiab 10 xyoo khiav qhov txhia qhov chaw lawm xwb. Kuv tseem muaj ib daim duab nrog cov hluas 12 xyoos sia phom M-16. Kuv muab txawb cia saum kuv lub rooj.” Schofield.

Schofield hais tias kuv hlub Hmoob heev. Raws li kuv hlub ces yog cia lawv ua teb rau kuv daim av. Kuv tuaj mus koom tej koobtsheej. Tiamsis lub sijhawm no yog lub tebchaws no yuav tsum nrog kuv hlub Hmoob thiab pom tau hais tias lawv muab ntshav los pua tebchaws.

Yim muaj neeg nyeem txog Hmoob yim muaj neeg paub txog Hmoob. Qhov tseeb tiag, cov haujlwm no yuav tsum tshwm sim yav tas no lawm.

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