It seems oddly appropriate (and a little inconvenient) that I was out of town at a conference on the day the U.S. Census Bureau released the latest statistics on poverty, income and health insurance coverage in the United States. It reminded me that for many years, fellow policy wonks from other states have looked at Minnesota with envy as a place that consistently ranks high on almost all of the good stuff, and ranks low on almost all of the bad stuff (although it’s important to acknowledge that these rankings overlook the deep racial inequities that have long plagued our state.)
But Minnesota is starting to lose its great reputation. With the release of the U.S. Census Current Population Survey (CPS) on Tuesday, we can look back and see that 2000-2010 represents a decade of decline for Minnesota. The CPS offers a preliminary look at state-level trends. Our poverty rate and level of uninsured may still be below the national average, and our median income remains above the national average, but we are headed in the wrong direction.
Poverty in Minnesota is on the rise. Over the last decade, the percentage of Minnesotans living in poverty has risen from 6.5 percent to 10.8 percent, according to preliminary statistics from the U.S. Census Bureau. That means one out of every ten Minnesotans is living below the poverty line (a stunning $22,113 for a family of four). With the threshold so low, it’s not surprising that families with incomes above the poverty line still struggle to meet their basic needs. Sadly, many are living with that reality: one out of four Minnesotans is surviving on an income below 200 percent of the poverty line ($44,226 for a family of four).
We are also seeing a dramatic drop in median income in the state. The preliminary data released by the U.S. Census Bureau shows that over the last decade, Minnesota’s median income fell from $65,120 to $54,785, after adjusting for inflation. That’s a drop of more than $10,000. Only Michigan experienced a larger decline in median income over the decade. More definitive state-level data on income will be released September 22 as part of the American Community Survey.
To complete the trifecta, the share of Minnesotans without health insurance has increased 2.1 percentage points over the last decade, hitting 10.2 percent in 2009-2010. How people are getting health coverage is also changing. The share of Minnesotans receiving employer-sponsored health care has fallen by nearly nine percentage points over the last decade. Public health insurance – like Medical Assistance – has picked up much of that slack, thereby preventing an even sharper increase in the number of uninsured Minnesotans.
You might think that times have been very tough, and surely every state is facing the same bad outcomes over the last decade. That’s not the case. Many states have managed to hold their ground in the face of two recessions, and a few states have even managed to show improvement (North Dakota and West Virginia saw an increase in median income, and Massachusetts reduced its percentage of uninsured).
The economic turmoil that has contributed to the increase in poverty and fall in median income may be beyond our ability to influence, but Minnesota’s policymakers can make better choices to reduce poverty, build the middle class and improve the state’s economic future.